This book examines how biological knowledge has transformed the planet and reshaped humanity. Using the concept of biological knowledge, the author explores key persons, places, ideas and events that have shaped the world. He shows that while the development of biological knowledge has opened vast new vistas in our understanding of the living world and promises material abundance for some; refracted through the distorting lens of ideology, it has also contributed to great inequality and oppression. The book delves into key issues that arise from adopting a biological approach to understanding human nature, such as the assessment of human difference, the relationship of knowledge to power, the nature and role of science and religion and the value and nature of human life. Combining an engaging narrative style with scholarly rigour, this book makes an important and timely contribution to present-day issues and contemporary debates emanating from the life sciences.